Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21—28, by using structured questionnaires. However, In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use.
They are selected with due regards to public health relevance, evidence on safety, efficacy, quality and comparative cost-effectiveness. They are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate amount and appropriate dosage forms with assured quality.
Preparing and using essential medicine list is one of the 12 core strategies adopted by WHO to control the appropriate use of medicines.
The prescriber, the dispenser, the patient clientthe health care system, and pharmaceutical institutions are the major role players in the use of drugs. Such practices are one of the major factors contributing for wastage of scarce financial resources for health.
The data was collected between January 21 and 28, from prescribers and dispensers of selected health facilities in South West Shoa Zone.
The zone has 2 hospitals, 47 health centers, 38 medium and small clinics, health posts, 2 pharmacies, 8 rural drug vendors, and 16 drug stores. The two hospitals have four pharmacies, namely, inpatient, outpatient, antiretroviral therapy, and store pharmacy, and the health centers have outpatient, antiretroviral therapy someand store pharmacy.
Simple, random sampling technique using lottery method was used to select the health facilities from each category. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured questionnaires consisting of open- and close-ended questions to collect the information on sociodemographic characteristics and drug utilization from prescribers and dispensers. After reviewing the literature, well-structured data collection forms were developed to make the language more clear.
The data-collection forms were further developed after pretesting was done in a small portion of dispensers and prescribers two or three before the beginning of the data collection. All prescribers and dispensers working in selected hospitals, health centers, pharmacies, clinics, drug stores, and rural drug venders in South West Shoa Zone were our source populations.
Those that were present at the time of data collection filled self-administered questionnaires concerning age, sex, occupational status, availability of essential drugs, accessibility of up-to-date drug related information, proper delivery of drugs, adequacy of label on dispensed drugs, and availability of standard treatment guidelines, formularies, and essential drug lists.
The variables were selected based on rational drug use studies, 5 — 7 and by using key interventions mentioned by the WHO to promote rational drug use.Side view of hip bone diagram diagram base website bone
The collected data was fed to SPSS 16 and presented using tables and figures. The ethical research committe of the pharmacy department, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University approved the study.
Then, written informed consent was prepared for approval by review board, and approval was secured. Finally, officials at different levels in the selected health facilities Tulu Bollo Hospital, Tulu Bollo Health Center, Woliso Health Center, Harbu Chululie Health Center, some private clinics, all pharmacies of the selected government health facilities, drug stores, and rural drug vendors were contacted and letters of permission were presented.
After the purpose of the study was explained, the participants gave their written informed consent to fill self-administered questionnaires. Confidentiality of the information was assured, privacy was maintained, and the record was filed in the document. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers to assess drug utilization practices. Pharmacists, druggists, and pharmacy technicians comprised The response of dispensers to the drug utilization questionnaires indicated that Majority of the dispensers got drug information from inserted leaflets, drug formularies, standard treatment guidelines, and books pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.
A significant number of dispensers While communicating to the patients, most of dispensers label the medication appropriately frequency [Medicine wastage is a longtime problem of public health facilities in Ethiopia.
However, evidence on the extent and type of wastage as well as its contributing factors are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the extent of medicine wastage and identify its contributing factors in public health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 public health facilities 1 hospital and 9 health centres. The value i. And, the results are summarized using descriptive statistics. Anti-infectives In conclusion, the extent of medicine wastage in public health facilities decreased over the three consecutive years.
However, the extent of the problem was still very high compared to the national target. A platform that facilitates communication among key supply chain actors should be devised to make informed decision including redistribution of overstocked and near expired products to less stocked and high consumption areas.
Keywords: medicines wastage, wastage rate, expired medicines, contributing factors, Ethiopia.
Southwest Shewa Zone
AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Abstract Medicine wastage is a longtime problem of public health facilities in Ethiopia.
Requires Subscription PDF. Vol 34 No 2 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Please use the link above to donate via Paypal. AJOL is a non-profit, relying on your support. Subscription Login to access subscriber-only resources.The protests initially occurred in around 15 towns, including Ambo, Nekemte and Dembi Dollo, on October 26 and Rallies continued today.
It is not right to make a protest rally for every minor problem. The OLF said yesterday that the military is killing civilians and should be withdrawn from communities in Guji Zone and western Oromia.
People peacefully protested on Oct. Youth blocked roads mid-afternoon the next day in an attempt to impede military trucks, and soldiers in the town then started shooting, he said Oct.
Grenades were thrown, slightly injuring four police officers. Shops and offices were closed, and the main road is still blocked, according to Eebbisa. Other issues raised at the rallies were the situation in southern Tigraywhere Oromo have allegedly been displaced, and a new national education roadmap that is said to not sufficiently promote the Oromo language.
However, the major focus has been opposition to OLF persecution and ongoing confusion over the role of the liberation front. There is no clarity over the details, although a ceasefire was signed on Aug. They returned with their flags only. According to the insider, the disagreement is primarily due to a lack of transparency. It is inappropriate for the government to talk about disarming the OLA, as the sacrifices of the rebel army and the youthful activist network known as Qeerroo created the opportunity for political change, the OLF said on Oct.
Qeerroo and other campaigners sustained almost three years of protests that forced the ruling coalition to change tack and brought Abiy to power.Jenn im house address
The Prime Minister then accelerated reforms with a wide-ranging political amnesty and public criticism of previous authoritarian methods. They also announced a plan on Sep. The electoral board said yesterday OLF has not registered as a political party.
In a possible sign of the future direction, on Oct. The next day, Addisu said the Sep.This page provides a complete overview of West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia region maps. Choose from a wide range of region map types and styles. From simple outline map graphics to detailed map of West Shewa.
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West Shewa Zone
Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. Maphill is more than just a map gallery. Each angle of view and every map style has its own advantage. Maphill lets you look at West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia from many different perspectives. Start by choosing the type of map.
You will be able to select the map style in the very next step. Do you need a more detailed and accurate region map than map graphics can offer? Choose from the following map types. Terrain map shows physical features of the landscape. Contours let you determine the height of mountains and depth of the ocean bottom.
Enter the name and choose a location from the list. Find cities, towns, villages, airports, hotels and other locations in West Shewa. Search results will show graphic and detailed maps matching the search criteria. Browse the below list of cities, towns and villages in West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia. Many different map types are available for all these locations. Maphill is definitely the most comprehensive map gallery on the web. But the gallery isn't much of a gallery without visitors.
If you like any of the maps, please don't keep it to yourself. Give your friends a chance to see how the world transformed into images looks like. The region maps of West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia are just few of the many available. You can easily download, print or embed West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia maps into your website, blog, or presentation.
Static image maps look the same in all browsers. It has been said that Maphill maps are worth a thousand words. That's certainly true. But it's still very little compared to what you can experience when you visit West Shewa, Oromiya, Ethiopia.Metrics details. Diabetes, a rising global health problem, requires continuous self-care practice to prevent acute and chronic complications. However, studies show that few diabetes patients practice the recommended self-care in Ethiopia.
The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with self-care practice among adult diabetes patients in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.Bandera de venezuela y colombia
In this cross-sectional study, diabetes patients mean age A questionnaire consisting standardized tools was used to collect the data. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version The mean score for diabetes self-care was Patients with recent diabetes diagnosis need special attention as they may relatively lack knowledge and skills in self-care.
Further studies are needed to elucidate pathways through which diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, social support, and health literacy affect diabetes self-care. Peer Review reports. Diabetes is one of the major global health problems [ 1 ] that requires continuous self-care practices for the prevention of both acute and long-term complications [ 2 ]. The global age-standardized diabetes prevalence is 9. It will even more than double in sub-Saharan Africa where the rapid demographic, sociocultural, and economic transitions are increasing the risk and prevalence of diabetes [ 6789 ].
In the face of scarce resources and a weak healthcare system, Ethiopia — a sub-Saharan country — has approximately 1. Though there is no reliable national prevalence estimate for diabetes in Ethiopia, a community-based study from the northern part of the country reported 5.
West Shewa Maps
Diabetes also constitutes 6. Self-care practices are important for the prevention of complications and improved health outcomes in diabetes patient. Self-care practices in diabetes involve healthy eating, medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, being physically active, and healthy coping [ 16 ].
Optimum self-care practice in diabetes is associated with improved glycemic control, [ 171819 ] prevention of cardiovascular risk factors, [ 192021 ] and decrease in unnecessary healthcare utilization, [ 22 ] and improved diabetes specific quality of life [ 23 ].
Nevertheless, many patients face challenges in implementing the recommended diabetes self-care practices. The challenges may emanate from the various personal and environmental contexts in which self-care practices take place. Some of these determinant factors are personal belief in treatment effectiveness, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care skills, social support, and patient-provider communication [ 242526 ].
The few available studies in Ethiopia show that not many diabetes patients practice the recommended self-care practice [ 293031 ]. Therefore, this study attempted to fill the knowledge gap in the area by exploring factors associated with diabetes self-care practices.Muhawara meaning in english
Understanding these factors is important in a multicultural society like Ethiopia since different personal and environmental contexts including demographic, psychosocial, and socioeconomic variables could influence self-care practice in diabetes [ 3233 ]. The purpose of this study was to assess the demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables associated with self-care practice among adult diabetes patients on follow up care in public hospitals of the West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.
The personal factors involve gender, age, marital status, religion, education, diabetes knowledge, and self-efficacy while the environmental factors mainly refer to social support. The TDSCM was selected as an organized framework in this study because of its cultural relevance and appropriateness to analyze the association of aforementioned personal and environmental variables with diabetes self-care practice.
The net sample of was recruited using a disproportionate stratified sampling method to ensure representativeness between hospitals since they had greatly unequal diabetes patient population. The data was collected in two local languages — Afaan Oromo and Amharic languages using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Four nurses holding Bachelor of Science degree were involved in data collection under the supervision of a senior nurse professional.
The principal investigator also made continues follow up in order to ensure the quality of the data collected. Permission to conduct the research was obtained from the authorities in the study settings and written informed consents were secured from each participant. Before data collection, we took measures to ensure meaning equivalence between the original English version of the questionnaire and the versions in the two local languages.
In this regard, the questionnaire was translated from English to Afaan Oromo and Amharic languages by a multilingual translator and then back translated to English by another multilingual translator. Demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded using 6-items and clinical characteristics with 4-items.Metrics details. Antenatal care ANC is special care for pregnant women with the aim of preventing, detecting and treating health problems in both the fetus and mother. Early ANC attendance promotes early detection and treatment of complications which result in proper management during delivery and puerperium.8 amp fuse for norcold refrigerator control board
However, the majority of pregnant women in Ethiopia initiate their ANC late. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of late initiation of ANC and its associated factors among attendants in Addis Zemen primary hospital. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Addis Zemen primary hospital from February 7 to JuneThe systematic random sampling technique was employed to select pregnant women who attended ANC in the hospital.
Data cleaning and analysis was done using SPSS version 25 statistical software. This study indicated that The prevalence of late ANC initiation remains a major public health issue in Ethiopia. The major factors for being late were found to be poor knowledge, being housewife, and self-employment, travel expenses and unintended pregnancy.Ethiopia: West Shoa Zone, Danno Woreda, Ethiopia
District and zonal health offices should work to create awareness about the importance of early initiation of ANC, make the service closer to the community and increase contraceptive utilization. Peer Review reports. Antenatal care is a special care that is provided for pregnant women with the aim of improving the health of the unborn baby and the mother.
Early initiation of ANC has the benefit of early detection and treatment of complications during pregnancy. However, the majority of women in Ethiopia initiate ANC late. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of late initiation of ANC and factors affecting it among ANC attendants in Addis Zemen primary hospital.
Of the total participants, started their follow up late. Being housewife, self employment, travel cost, poor knowledge about ANC and unintended pregnancy were the factors that increased the likelihood of initiating ANC late.
In conclusion, late initiation of ANC was high in the study area. Poor knowledge level, being housewife and self-employment, travel expenses and unintended pregnancy were significantly associated with late initiation of ANC. Maternal mortality reduction remains a priority agenda in the new sustainable development goals SDGs 3.Python quiz game source code
However, it remains the global challenge withdeaths due to pregnancy and related complications in [ 1 ]. Most of the causes of maternal deaths are preventable, detectable, and treatable. Therefore, immediate action is needed to meet the ambitions of SDG for eliminating preventable causes of maternal death with a special attention to Sub- saharan Africa [ 45 ] Antenatal care is one of the key strategies for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy related illness, or indirectly through detection of women at risk of complications of delivery and ensuring that they deliver in a suitably equipped facility.
During ANC, health providers monitor and identify risk factors related to poor maternal and birth outcomes. Once problems are identified, providers can initiate appropriate medical and educational interventions to reduce the risks for maternal-neonatal morbidity and mortality [ 67 ].
Screening for syphilis should be offered to all pregnant women at an early stage of ANC because treatment of syphilis is beneficial to the mother and the fetus. Furthermore, iron supplementation and immunizations, such as Tetanus Toxoid TTgiven during pregnancy can be life-saving for both mothers and infants if it is initiated at an early stage of pregnancy [ 9101112 ]. Early initiation of ANC also has a big role in reducing bad perinatal outcomes like preterm birth, low birth weight [ 13 ], and jaundice [ 14 ].
The aims of early ANC booking are identification of complications or risk factors for complications which enable early interventions to alleviate or mitigate the effects of such complications on mothers and unborn babies [ 15 ]. Sincethe Ethiopian government has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community-based workers called Health Extension Workers HEWs.To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profiling of bacterial strains from clinical isolates in Gedo Hospital, West Shoa Region, Oromia State, Ethiopia to create awareness of periodic antibiotic susceptibility testing, antimicrobial resistance among the health care providers.
A convenience sample of patients who visited the adult outpatient department of Gedo hospital for diarrheal complaint was incorporated into the study. Isolation, identification of bacterial strains and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the disk diffusion method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute using commercial antibiotic discs. Shiegella and Salmonella strains were susceptible to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, respectively but a high rate of resistance were observed to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline for both Shiegella and Salmonella strains.
Notably, both bacteria have developed complete resistance to amoxicillin. Gentamicin may be the drug choice for Shiegella stains caused diarrhea and ciprofloxacin for the diarrhea caused by Salmonella in the study area.
Antibiotics selection and treatment of infections based on bacterial strains identification and in vitro susceptibility testing rather than current empirical treatment. Diarrheal disease amounts to an estimated 4. Among the microbial pathogens Vibrio choleraSalmonella and Shiegella strain are the most serious as they cause severe illness and as they are associated with outbreaks.
Among the enteric bacterial pathogens Salmonella and Shiegella are of particular concern as causes of enteric fevers, food poisoning and gastroenteritis. The retrospective studies carried out in Ethiopia showed the prevalence of Salmonella 5. Antibiotic resistance is a drug resistance where a microorganism has developed the ability to survive exposure to an antibiotic. The volume of antibiotic prescribed is the major cause in increasing rates of microbial resistance rather than compliance with antibiotics Thirumurugan and Dhanaraju, Also the achievements of modern medicine are put at risk by antimicrobial resistance because lack of effective antimicrobials the successive treatments such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, major surgery would be compromised and possibilities of spreading antimicrobial resistance rapidly from countries to countries and continents through humans and food.
Resistance has spread worldwide, antimicrobial resistance gonorrhoea emerged in Vietnam in and then spread to the Philippines and finally the USA Thirumurugan et al. Appropriate antimicrobial drug use has unquestionable benefit, but physicians and the public often utilize these agents inappropriately. Inappropriate use results from physicians providing antimicrobial drugs to treat viral infections, using inadequate criteria for diagnosis of infections that potentially have a microbial etiology, unnecessarily prescribing expensive, broad-spectrum agents and not following established recommendations for using common prophylaxis.
The availability of antibiotics over the counter, despite regulations to the contrary, also fuel inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs in developing countries. The epidemiological and prescriptions pattern studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that a higher percentage and irrational use of antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing pattern at Bishoftu hospital shows In most developing countrieslaboratory investigations of resistant microbes are diagnostic challenges due to lack of adequate facilities that enable culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing Collee et al.
As a result, there is restricted awareness of the prevalence of infections and antimicrobial resistance Cook and Zumla, ; Sharma et al. Also, the injudicious use of antibiotics by patients and physicians alike in many developing countries such as Ethiopia has led to an increased antimicrobial resistance and in turn reduced therapeutic efficacy in these countries Asrat, In Harar, Eastern Ethiopia, Salmonella and Shiegella have been reported to be resistant to first line antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and also resistant Shiegella serogroups identified from adult diarrhoeal out patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Aseffa et al.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains from clinical isolates in Gedo Hospital, West Shoa Region, Oromia State, Ethiopia to create the awareness of periodic antibiotic susceptibility testing, antimicrobial resistance among the health care providers. The convenient sampling technique employed to collect samples and the patients who took any antibiotics for treatment was not included in the study.
About 1. Bacteriological investigation: The specimens collected were precisely transported to the Ambo University Microbiology Laboratory using Cary Blair transport media for isolation and identification of bacteria NCCLS, The same samples were plated onto Selenite F broth and incubated as a fore stated for enrichment. Following the incubation of Selenite F broth, a loop 0. Two to three colonies suspected were selected, purified by streaking on to nutrient agar plates and characterized biochemically using Klingler Iron Agar, Urease tests, motility and indole test NCCLS, Antibiotic susceptibility test: Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disk diffusion method using guidelines established by Bauer et al.
Characterization of the resistance or susceptibility profile of the isolates were determined by measuring the inhibitory zone and then compared with the interpretative chart to determine the susceptibility of the isolates to the antibiotics Thirumurugan et al. Quality control: Culture media were checked for sterility and performance.
Standard strains of E. Data analysis: Tables and percentages were used to describe findings. Cross tabulations were utilized to examine the levels of antimicrobial resistance to the respective antibiotics.
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